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They provided the foundations for understanding the relationship between the damage and the beneficial insects in agricultural systems and how the farmer could exploit them to their advantage through the detailed description of the equilibrium position among populations of pests, the economic threshold (ET), and the economic injury level (EIL).
In Europe, noteworthy was the role played since 1956 by the International Organization of Biological Control (IOBC), and more specifically, the pioneering activity of fruit entomologists operating within the IOBC working group “integrated control in orchard” established in 1959 with the aim of promoting the development of biological control in a comprehensive concept of integrated fruit production .
Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits.
Nevertheless, most pest management programs still rely heavily upon the role of conventional insecticides which are in most cases the principal means for pest and disease control in fruit orchards [3,4,5].
In apple production, particularly, the presence of arthropod pests, several serious diseases, and high cosmetic standards for fresh fruit market (e.g., there is zero tolerance for the live codling moth) represent formidable obstacles to the adoptions of alternative means of pest control and low-spray apple production.
The turning point with regard to the definition of the concept of IPM is considered to be 1958  when two separate study groups, one American and one Dutch, looking for alternative solutions to the defense of crops introduced the concept of integrated control at the 10th International Congress of Entomology held in Montreal.
The document arose from concern that arises from the obvious deleterious effects caused by broad-spectrum insecticides used in agriculture [8,9].
The term “integrated control” proposed by researchers in California [10,11] was unanimously accepted by the international community.