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The term infibulation derives from fibula, Latin for clasp—the Ancient Romans reportedly fastened clasps through the foreskins or labia of slaves to prevent sexual intercourse.
The surgical infibulation of women came to be known as pharaonic circumcision in Sudan, but as Sudanese circumcision in Egypt.
Several studies have suggested that survey responses are unreliable.
A 2003 study in Ghana found that in 1995 four percent said they had not undergone FGM, but in 2000 said they had, while 11 percent switched in the other direction.
These low prices can be used in your advantage especially on international phone calls.It is usually initiated and carried out by women, who see it as a source of honour, and who fear that failing to have their daughters and granddaughters cut will expose the girls to social exclusion. They can include recurrent infections, difficulty urinating and passing menstrual flow, chronic pain, the development of cysts, an inability to get pregnant, complications during childbirth, and fatal bleeding.There have been international efforts since the 1970s to persuade practitioners to abandon FGM, and it has been outlawed or restricted in most of the countries in which it occurs, although the laws are poorly enforced.Since 2010 the United Nations has called upon healthcare providers to stop performing all forms of the procedure, including reinfibulation after childbirth and symbolic "nicking" of the clitoral hood.
The Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children began referring to it as female genital mutilation in 1990, and the World Health Organization (WHO) followed suit in 1991.Typically carried out by a traditional circumciser using a blade, FGM is conducted from days after birth to puberty and beyond.In half the countries for which national figures are available, most girls are cut before the age of five.help of Vo IP technology you can make international phone calls but with lower costs than traditional phone system.